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JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 8 NO 2, DECEMBER, 2010


 

THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL CLIMATE CHANGE ON TEACHERS’ PRODUCTIVITY AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT

                                                       Musibau Adeoye Yusuf

Department of Educational Administration and Planning,Adeyemi College of Education

Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

                                                    E-mail : siyanmade@yahoo.co.uk

                                                                            and

                                                                Johnson Tayo Adigun

        Department of Primary Education Studies,College of Education, Ikere- Ekiti

E-mail: drjato@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between school climate, teachers’ productivity and students’ achievement in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. The study used descriptive research of the survey type. The sample of this study was eighteen secondary school.  Simple random sampling technique was used for this study.   Three sets of questionnaire were used to collect relevant data from the subjects. The first instrument tagged Teachers’ Productivity Questionnaire (TPQ), the second was tagged School Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) while the third instrument was tagged Students’ Achievement Questionnaire (SAQ). Data collected were analyzed using percentage score, means, standard deviation, t-test analysis and Pearson product moment correlation. All the hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that the pre-dominant used school climate in secondary schools was open climate.  The study also revealed that the level of teachers’ productivity was low while the level of students’ achievement was relatively high.  It was also revealed that there was no significant difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools and school climate and teachers’ productivity in senior and junior secondary schools while the study revealed that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary school students. It was revealed that there was a significant relationship between school climate, teachers’ productivity and students’ achievement. Based on the findings, it was recommended that school administrators should   create a favourable school climate in order to enhance better teachers’ productivity and better students’ achievement.          

 

Keywords: School climate, teacher productivity, students’ achievement

 


Introduction

An organization could be defined as a system that consciously co-ordinates the activities of two or more persons and influences their behavior (Barnard, 1960).  The school as an organization has certain aims and objectives which it has to achieve (National Policy on Education 2004). In order to achieve the aims and objectives, the organization climate of the organization including the school system is very important. This organization climate refers to the working condition among super ordinates (school heads) and subordinates (teachers) in a bid to achieve the aims and objectives of the school system. School climate refers to factors that contribute to the tone in schools, and attitudes of staff and students toward their schools. Positive school climate is associated with well managed classrooms and common areas, high and clearly stated expectations concerning individual responsibility, feeling safe at school, and teachers and another supporting staff that consistently acknowledge  students and fairly address their behavior. (American Institutes for Research, 2007). The size of the school is equally important. In this regard, Eberts, Kehoe & Stone (1982) examined the relationship between school size and students’ achievement and found out that teachers’ satisfaction was greater in smaller schools than in large schools. In their study, Smith and Gregory (1987) utilized a climate assessment instrument and a series or in – depth interviews and  found that teachers were much more satisfied in the small schools than large schools, while Fowler and Welberg (1991) found in one of their studies that large school size was negatively related to school climate. Ramirez (1992) maintains that size per see is unrelated to achievement, rather the organization of classroom and other instructional space are the major elements in a schools’ success or failure. Teaching and learning situation in schools seem to be a function of the atmosphere of the school and the productivity of the teacher. School climate is a set of unique characteristics of a school. These characteristics distinguish one school from another. In one school the school head, teachers and staff may find pleasure in working together. In another school, it may be discontent among the staff. In one school, staff may appear well organized seem competent and exhibit confidence in whatever they do, yet in another school, there may be tension as the school heads loses control (Clifton 1999). School climate is related to school connectedness because without a positive and welcoming school climate, both students’ and teachers are unlikely to experience connectedness; the poor conceitedness would have negative effect on teachers’ job productivity and students’ achievement. Productivity of an organization is defined as the ratio of outputs produced by the organization and the resources consumed in the process. Teacher productivity is the ratio of output produced by the teachers, here the output refers to the quality and quality of students produces by the teachers.

 

Litwin and stringer (1988) investigated leadership behavior and organizational climate and found out that by varying the leadership behavior in organization different climates could be created with implication for teachers’ job productivity and students’ achievement. According to the authors, organization A may be characterized by strong emphasis on structure, vertical communication, status, assigned role authority, rules and regulations. Organization B may be characterized by emphasis on teamwork and friendliness while organization C may be characterized by emphasis on quality, performance and creativity. Every educational organization has a climate that distinguishes it from other schools and influences behavior and feelings of teachers and students achievement for that school (Sergiovanni and Starratt, 1988).

 

Climate has been defined in various ways by authors as the perceived subjective effect of the formal system , the informal styles of managers and other important environmental factor that impact on the attitudes , beliefs, values and motivation of people who work in a particular organization , personality of an organization , the atmosphere of the work place , including a complex mixture of norms , values , expectations, policies and procedures that influence individual and group patterns of behavior (Spencer , Pelote and Seymour,1998).

 

As for schools, climate is a necessary link between organizational structure, teacher attitudes to work and behavior and student achievement. It was found that formal characteristics of schools had an important influence on the way in which teacher perform their duties and obligation in the school system. Climate could represent a composite of the meditating variable that intervene between the structure of an organization   and the styles and other characteristics of leaders, teacher productivity and student achievement. Numerous studies have been done on organizational school climate. For instance, Halpin and Croft (1963) find that it is behavior of elementary school principals, which in a large measure sets a climate tone for school. Kelner , Rivers and O’Connell  (1996) in their study that on going since the 1956s, indicate that successful  leadership competencies and managerial styles  producing   motivating organizational climates ,which arouse employee motivation to do work well , and which predict the desired organization outcomes which in the school system is referred to as the students achievement . Hundred of studies have demonstrates the line between organizational climate and bottom link performance measure such as volume, efficiency productivity. According to Spencer, Pelote and Seymour (1998), the organizational climate has accounted for 10 to 25 percent of the variance in performance measures. Pirola–merlo, Hartel, Mann and Hirst (2002) examined how negative event impact on team climate and how team climate relates to performance. Based on the results, team climate had a positive relation with team performance. Zohar (2000) demonstrated that variation in behavior at the level of the individual supervisor, the group climate level of analysis affects safely behavior and it was plausible that this would hold true for other aspect of climate.

 

Climate could represent a composite of the mediating variable that intervenes between the structures of an organization. Halpin (1967) identified six types of organizational climate. He classified them as follows; open climate that is, a climate in which nothing is hidden to teachers, and every teacher feels satisfied with work. The second category is close climate; here the school heads and teachers are displeased with everything while exhibiting lack of commitment to work. The third is autonomous climate which is characterized by complete freedom for teachers to conduct their research; here the head teacher is relatively aloof. The forth is controlled climate, here the school heads are highly domineering, personal problems of staff are given little attention. The fifth is paternal climate. The school heads are dictators while teachers do not get on well with one another. The last is familiar climate. It is characterized by sociability at the expense of job performance. The school head, though considerate does not emphasis productivity. Thus school climate will affect the classroom climate which in turn would affect the classroom organization of the teachers.      

              

High productivity is the hall mark of growth and   development  of nations all over the world, the level of efficiency, productivity and the ability of  the educational system to achieve  its  set  goals  depend on the  teacher as reflected in performing their defined  roles because  teacher are  the fulcra upon which the whole educational system revolves (Eduese, 1996). Teachers have been shown to have an important impact on student achievement and also play a crucial role on educational attainment (Lloyd, Mensch and Clark 2000). Teaching and learning achievement depend on teachers, for there can be no meaningful socio-economic and political development in any society without teachers. Productivity is concerned with the overall effectiveness and efficiency of getting things done. It is essentially a ratio to measure how well an organization converts resources into goods and services. In the school system, teacher productivity may be measured in terms of teachers’ performance. In assessing teachers’ performance, qualitative tools such as standardized test scores of student have been used (Schacter and Thum, 2004).  Blankstein (1996 ) opined that grades and test scores  do not reflect the quality of instruction because  teacher input is not  the only factor that influence  students achievement in the  school system , other factor  that  have been  identifies to have significant Influence on students  achievement include peer effect, ethnicity , gender, motivation , income as well as family  background  variables such as house hold environment and parental educational background (Wenglisky, 2001). This suggests that teachers’ productivity level may be evaluated in terms of what the teachers control and actually do in the classroom such as   teaching effectiveness and classroom performance. Teaching effectiveness has been accepted as a multidimensional construct   since it measures a variety of different aspect of teaching (Dunkin, 1997).

              

School administrators, students, colleagues and the teachers’ self–evaluation have been used to evaluate and measure teachers’ effectiveness and productivity. Moreover students’ competence in the evaluation of the effectiveness of their teachers has been of great concern to researchers in education. Barnett, Matthews and Jackson (2003), suggest that student rating are valuable indicator of teaching effectiveness, Nuhfer (2004) and Pozo-munoz, Rebolloso-pacheco and Fernandez-Ramirez.(2000) warned that student rating should  be one  of  a  comprehensive  evaluation system and should never be  the only measure of teachers effectiveness and productivity. The school administrator evaluation has also been used to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness. The accuracy of school administrator evaluation of teacher has also been identified and studied. Jacob and Lefgren (2006) found a positive correlation between  principal  assessment  of how effectiveness a teacher  is at raising student  achievement and that teacher  success in doing so  as measured by the value –added approach . The above suggest that administrators, rating may also be one of the comprehensive ways of evaluating teachers’ effectiveness and productivity is the school system. Factors that influence teachers’ productivity have been identified to include teachers, gender, marital status, academic attainment teaching experience and school climate. It is against this background and literature that this study wants to examine the influence of school climate change on teachers’ productivity and students’ achievement in secondary school in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.

 

 

Statement of problem

Teacher productivity and student   achievement in secondary   school may be determined by several factors. It has also been observed that the teacher productivity and students achievement are poor. the expected outcome of teacher  performance which is  better  student  achievement  is  not  easily achieved in the school system . People are complaining about the poor productivity of teacher which in turn leads to poor students’ achievement. Hence the need to conduct this study is highly important.   

 

Purpose of study

 The main purpose of the study was to determine the level of    school   climate, student achievement and teacher productivity. The study used to determine the influence of school climate on teacher productivity of male and female student achievement research question.

The following research questions were raised to direct the study:-

  1.  What   type of   organizational climate is pre-dominantly used in school?
  2. What is the level of teacher productivity?
  3. What is the level of student achievement?

Hypotheses:

  1. There is no significant difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools.
  2.  There is no significant difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools.  
  3. There is no significant difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools. 
  4.  There is no significant relationship between school climate and teachers’ productivity. 
  5. There is no significant relationship between school climate and students’ achievement. 

Research methods 

The descriptive survey   was utilized for this study .the study population comprised for all   the 18 public secondary school (both junior and senior) in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. All the school in the local government 18 was taken for the study. All the school heads of the schools constituted the subjects of the study. After a careful review of the literature the productivity variable was determined as a composite of teachers, productivity, school climate and students’ achievement. Three sets of questionnaires   and rating scale were designed. The first questionnaire tagged teacher productivity questionnaire (TPQ) was designed for the school administrators to evaluate the teaching effective of the school sampled teacher in each school .the second questionnaire was tagged School Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) were to respond to by the teacher who were sampled by the study. The third questionnaire tagged students achievement   questionnaire (S A Q) was respond to by the school   registrars.

 

Methods of data analysis

  The data collected for the study were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics that were used are percentages, frequency counts, means and standard deviation while the inferential statistics used were t-test analysis and Pearson product moment correlation analysis. Question 1, 2 and 3 were answered using frequency counts and percentages. Hypotheses 1 – 3 were tested using t-test analysis while hypotheses 4 and 5 were tested using Pearson product moment correlation analysis. All the hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance.


Result

Question 1: What type of school climate is pre-dominant in secondary schools?   

 

 

Table 1: Type of school climate common in secondary schools

school climate

Common

%

Not common

%

Open climate

180

100%

 

 

Closed climate

 

 

180

100%

Autonomous climate

 

 

180

100%

Controlled climate

 

 

180

100%

Familiar climate

 

 

180

100%

Paternal climate

 

 

180

100%

        

 


Table 1 show the pre-dominant school climate type that is commonly used in secondary schools. Respondents (180) in all the schools claimed that their schools have an open climate type of administration while they claimed that none of the other climate types were commonly used in their schools.               


 

  Question 2: What is the level of teachers’ productivity in secondary schools?

 

Table 2: teachers’ level of productivity in secondary schools

Variables

N

High

%

Average

%

Low

%

Performance in teaching

180

15

8.3

35

19

130

72.2

Lesson preparation

180

17

9.4

23

12.7

140

77.7

Evaluation of teaching

180

21

11.6

100

55.5

59

32.7

Extra-curricular activities

180

32

17.7

60

33.3

88

48

Effective leadership 

180

24

13.3

33

18.3

123

68.3

Motivation

180

29

16.1

44

24.4

107

59.9

Disciplinary ability

180

18

10

36

20

126

70

Lesson presentation

180

16

8.8

20

11.1

144

80

Average

180

22

12.2

44

24.4

114

63.3

 


Table 2 indicates the level of teachers’ productivity in performance of teaching, lesson preparation, lesson presentation, extra-curricular activities, effective leadership, motivation and disciplinary ability as low as indicated by the school administrators. The performance level was on the average in the evaluation of teaching. The average productivity shows that 22 representing   12.2 percent had high level of productivity while those who had average level of productivity were 44 representing 24.4 percent and 144 representing 63.3 had low level of productivity. This implies that the level of teachers’ productivity was low.      

 


 

Question 3: What is the level of students’ achievement in secondary schools?

Table 3: level of students’ achievement in secondary schools

Students’ achievement

Frequency

Percentage

Low (0- 76.22)

31

17.2

Moderate (76.23-82.61)

43

23.8

High (82.62-100)

106

58.8

Total

180

100

    


Table 3 indicates the level of students’ achievement in secondary schools, the result indicates that out of the 180 respondents 31 representing 17.2 percent had low students’ achievement. Those who had moderate level of students’ achievement were 43 representing 23.8 percent while those had high level of students’ achievement were 106 representing 58.8 percent of the respondents. This indicates that the level of students’ achievement was relatively high.

 

Testing of hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools.  


 

Table 4: t-test analysis difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools

Variables 

N

Means

SD

Df

r-cal

r-table

Senior school

90

48.57

8.79

 

178

 

0.73

 

1.96

Junior school

90

50.03

11.63

                                                            P >0.05

 


Table 4 reveals that the difference in school climate in senior and junior secondary schools. The result obtained from the analysis reveals that the value of t-calculated of 0.73 is less than the t-table value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Hence the null hypothesis is not rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools.  

 

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools.  

Table 5: t-test analysis difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools


Variables 

N

Means

SD

Df

r-cal

r-table

Senior school

90

82.44

6.12

 

178

 

0.2

 

1.96

Junior school

90

82.63

6.52

                                                            P >0.05

Table 5 shows the difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools. The result obtained from the analysis shows that the value of t-calculated value of 0.2 is less than the t-table value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis is not rejected. This means there is no significant difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools.

 

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools.  

Table 6: t-test analysis difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools

Variables 

N

Means

SD

Df

r-cal

r-table

Senior school

90

82.06

6.60

 

178

 

2.11

 

1.96

Junior school

90

84.75

5.22

                                                            P <0.05


Table 6 reveals the difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools. The result obtained from the analysis reveals that the value of t-calculated 2.11 is greater than the t-table 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. However, the null hypothesis was rejected. This means that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools. The mean score for both senior and junior school on students’ achievement showed that the mean score of junior secondary school 84.75 is greater than the mean score of senior secondary schools 82.06. This showed that there is a significant difference in students’ achievement between senior and junior secondary schools.  


 

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship between school climate and teachers’ productivity. 

Table 7: test of relationship between school climate and teachers’ productivity

Variable

 N

r-cal

r-table

School climate

180

 

0.591

 

0.195

Teachers’ productivity 

180

P<0.05

 


Table 7 shows the relationship between school climate and teachers’ productivity. The result obtained from the analysis shows that the value of r-calculated of 0.591 is greater than the r-table value of 0.195. Hence the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows that there was a significant relationship between school climate and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools. The finding implies that teachers’ productivity is a function of the school climate. This means that teachers’ productivity would be high in a favourable school climate.


Hypothesis 5: There is no significant relationship between school climate and students’ achievement. 

 

Table 8: test of relationship between school climate and students’ achievement

Variable

 N

r-cal

r-table

School climate

180

 

0.472

 

0.195

students’ achievement

 

180

P<0.05

 


Table 8 reveals the relationship between school climate and students’ achievement. It could observe that r-calculated (0.472) is greater than the r-table (0.195) at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. That is there was a significant relationship between school climate and students’ achievement.  The finding implies that students’ achievement is a function of the school climate. This means that students’ achievement would be high in a favourable school climate.

 

 Discussion  

The study revealed the pre-dominantly used school climate in secondary schools in Ikere-Local Government area of Ekiti state during the period under investigation. The study revealed that the pre-dominant school climate in secondary schools is open climate. The reason for using open climate might not be unconnected with proper seminars organized by for the school administrator by the state Government. This implies that there are better induction programme for school principals on how to manage their schools which in turn may enhance better teachers’ productivity and batter students’ achievement in schools. This finding of this study supports that of Adeyemi (2008).

 

The study also revealed that the level of teachers’ productivity was low during the period under study. The reason for this might not be unconnected with the fact that the state government did not pay the salary of teachers as at when due.  There are other factors outside the scope of this study that may contribute positively to teachers’ productivity in secondary schools. The study contradicts that of Olonisakin (2002) while it supports that of Adeyemi (2008). The study revealed that level of students’ achievement in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state was relatively high during the period under investigation. The relative high level of students’ achievement might not be unconnected with open climate style of administration been used by the school administrators and other factors such as provision of physical facilities, students’ commitment to their study, societal value among others. The finding of the study supports that of Yusuf and Adigun (2009). The reason for contradictory findings might not be unconnected with the variation in sampled used and period and area covered by the study.

 

The hypotheses tested revealed that there was no significant difference in school climate between senior and junior secondary schools. The reason for this outcome might be due to the fact that the government of Ekiti always organized seminars for school principals, vice- principals and Head of departments on how to administer their schools to yield better results. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in teachers’ productivity between senior and junior secondary schools. This implies that whether a teacher is working at junior or senior secondary school does not make a difference in their productivity, what maters is the administrative competence of the school principal and provision of facilities to work with in the school system.  

 

The study further revealed that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement in senior and junior secondary schools. The mean score of junior secondary school is greater than the mean score of senior secondary schools. This showed that junior secondary had better students’ achievement than the senior secondary schools. The reason for this might not be unconnected with thorough inspection of the junior secondary schools by inspectorate division of ministry of education and provision of both physical and material to work with by both the federal and state government.

 

The study further revealed that there was a significant relationship between school climate and teachers productivity. The finding implies that teachers’ productivity is a product of better school climate and that better teachers’ productivity would be enhanced through a better school climate. This would create better and conducive environment for the teachers to work within the school system.

 

The study also revealed that there was a significant relationship between school climate and students’ achievement. This study implies that better school climate would enhance better teachers’ productivity which in turn produces better students’ achievement in secondary schools. 

 

Conclusion

The findings of this study has led the writer of this paper to conclude that variables of school climate are critical variables in teachers’ productivity and students’ achievement in schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state. However, the open climate was found in the study to be the pre-dominant methods of administration in schools, yet the study revealed that the level of teachers’ productivity in the school was low.  

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings, it was recommended that the school Principals, school maintain and create a favourable climate in secondary school system in order to enhance better teachers’ productivity and better students’ achievement. The school principal should monitor regularly, control, direct and guide teachers work and motivate them by providing physical facilities and other materials to work within the school system. The state government should not relent in their effort in organizing seminars for the school heads and ensure effective utilization of both physical and human facilities in school.  

 

 

 

 

 

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