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MODE OF ENTRY AND DEGREE PERFORMANCE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES
Edhereveno Sylvanus Evroro
epartment of Technical and Business Education, Delta State University, Abraka
This study examined the relationship between the mode of entry and degree performance of Delta State University, Abraka, students. Two research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated and tested in the course of the study. A sample of 300 students made up of 100 pre-degree entry, 100 UniversitiesMatriculation Examination entry and 100 Direct entry, was drawn from the population using proportional stratified random sampling technique. The student data file and a check-list were the instruments used for data collection. The simple percentage, frequency count and chi-square test statistics were used to analyse the data. The result revealed that there is no significant relationship between mode of entry into the university and students performance. The paper concluded that the performance of students in Delta State University has no relationship with mode of entry. It was therefore recommended that both pre-degree, UME and Direct entry should be used as mode of admission into universities.
Keywords: Mode of Entry, degree performance, pre-degree, UME and Direct Entry
Education is universally recognized as one of the instruments for social, political, scientific and technological development. This is the reason why no society can afford to toy with the education of its citizenry as this will result in a snail speed development. (Azikiwe, 2000). In the 1960s very few people were seeking for admission into higher institutions and those who were admitted got it through hard work. Any person who found himself/herself there was therefore considered intelligent and academically superior to his/her peers (Erigha, 2001).
Although there are basically two modes of entry into Nigerian Universities; that is Universities Matriculation Examination (UME) and Direct Entry (DE), a third mode exists as a way of running away from the Universities Matriculation Examination conducted by Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board, JAMB. Some universities in Nigeria call the third mode Pre-degree Programme.
This belief of people over which mode of entry is better in terms of university performance is different from one group to another, hence this study was undertaken to examine the mode of entry and performance of Nigerian universities undergraduates with Delta State University, Abraka as a case study.
Statement of Problem
The academic performance of students admitted into the universities has been an issue of great concern to lecturers and all those who are interested in the education industry. There are minimum entry requirement that candidates must posses before they can be admitted into degree programme in the universities. Delta State University is not an exception. The requirements are met for both the pre-degree, UME and Direct entry candidates. Candidates are expected to possess NECO/WAEC SSCE or its equivalents with credits in five (5) subjects (including English and mathematics) relevant to their course(s) at not more than two sittings.
It is assumed that all those admitted into the university irrespective of the mode of entry will be able to cope with the academic rigours but contrary to this expectations, some drop out on the way without graduating from the university, yet some change their courses and others spend extra year(s) before graduating as you can see with extension students and even some end up with pass and third class degrees. This scenario shows that performance may be a function of the mode of entry, hence, the problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the mode of entry and performance of Nigeria undergraduates with Delsu Abraka as a case study.
To guide the course of investigation in this study, answers were sought to these questions.
1 what is the pattern of performance of the three modes of entry into the university in the three years where all the modes took the same examination?
2 Is there any relationship between mode of entry into the university and student performance at the different levels ?
The following null hypothesis was formulated based on the research questions raised and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H0: There is no significant relationship between the mode of entry into the university and student performance at the different levels.
HA: There is significant relationship between the mode of entry into the university and student performance at the different levels.
The descriptive survey and case study designs were employed to investigate the relationship between mode of entry and degree performance of students in the faculty of education of Delta State University, Abraka. Nworgu (2006) describe case study research design as an intensive study geared towards a thorough understanding of a given social unit. The social unit may be an individual, a group of individuals, a community or an institution.
Population of the Study
The target population for the study was made up of all those admitted through pre-degree and UME into the faculty of Education of Delta State University Abraka in 2003/2004 and those given direct entry admission in 2004/2005 academic session. The estimated population was made up 423 pre-degree students, 206 UME students and 157 Direct Entry students from all the programmes that admit students through the three mode of entry in the faculty of education.
Sample and Sampling Technique
A sample of 300 students was selected from the population bearing in mind that it include the three modes of entry that were the concerns of this study. The proportional stratified random sampling technique was used in the selection of the sample to ensure that all the programmes that admitted students through the three mode of entry were fully represented. The sample was equally distributed among the three subgroups.
The students’ data file at the various department was used to collect data for the study. Specifically, the research instrument used was the check-list. The check list was prepared by the researcher and modified after due consultation with the departments involved in the study.
Data were collected from the sampled departments through the students data file and check-list personally by the researcher. The students cumulative grade point average (CGPA) at the end of 200L, 300L and 400L of the students university education were collected in the subgroup of pre-degree, UME and Direct Entry students. The categorization of the CGPA was based on the university class of degree.
Method of data Analysis
Simple percentage, frequency count and chi-square test were used in analyzing the data. The chi-square test was used at 0.05 level of significance to test the null hypothesis.
Results and Discussion
The first question in this study sought answers about the pattern of performance of the three mode of entry into the university in the three years were all the mode of entry took the same examination. The summary of the findings are presented in Table 1,2,3 (see appendix).
Table 1 shows that only 12% of the Pre-degree mode of entry are in the range of probation and pass degree while 64% of this mode are within the 3rd and 22 range of degree 18% of them are within the 21 level while 6% of them are in the 1st class range of degree.
For the UME mode of entry, 20% of the subgroup fall within the range of probation and pass degree while 72% of them are within the 3rd & 22 range of degree. 4% of them are within the 21 while 4% of them are in the 1st class range of degree.
In the Direct entry mode 8% of the group are under probation and pass degree while 78% of them are within the 3rd class and 22 class degree. 8% of the subgroup are under 21 while 6% of them are within the range of 1st class degree.
The results presented in Table 2 show that 14.9% of the Pre-degree mode of entry are now under probation and pass degree. This show little improvement compared to when they were in 200 level. 59.6% of this subgroup are within 22 and 21 while only 3.2% of the pre-degree entry are under 1st class range.
For the UME subgroup 12.5% of them are under probation and pass degree while 73.8% of them are within the range of 3rd class and 22. 2.3% of this subgroup are under the 1st class. For the Direct Entry students 10.4% of them are under probation and pass degree while 72.9% of them are under 3rd class and 22 range of degree. The percentage of the subgroup under 21 and 1st class is 16.7%.
A close look at the percentage presented above shows that the Direct Entry students performed better than the pre-degree and UME students. It was also observed that 22 students dropped from the sample because they are probating.
From table 3, 10.9% of the Pre-degree mode of entry came out with pass degree. 17.4% made 3rd class degree and 71.7% made 22 and 21.
For the UME mode of Entry, 9.4% of this subgroup graduated with pass degree while 17.6%came out with 3rd class degree and 73.0% made 22 and 21.
For the D/E mode, 6.4% of them graduated with pass degree, 12.8% with 3rd class, and 80.8% with 22 and 21. The sample that ended the study was 271 which shows that 7 of them were unable to move to 400L.
Test of Hypothesis
The hypothesis was tested under the three years using the X2-test at 0.05 level of significant.
From the analysis of data shown in table 4, we reject the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the mode of entry into the university and students performance at the 200 level.
But from the analysis of data shown in table 5and 6, the mode of entry has no significant influence on the performance of the students. This result disagrees and agreed with Omirin (2007) at 200 levels and 300/400 levels respectively who reported that there is no significant different between the performance of pre-degree and UME students admitted into Nigerian Universities we accepted the null hypothesis for the 300 and 400 levels. Although at the 200 level of the study the result revealed that there is significant relationship between the mode of entry into the university and student performances.
The result of the present study at the 300 and 400 levels negate that of Majasan and Bakare (1974) and Fafunwa (1967). Majasan and Bakere (1974) reported that the HSC examination is the most predictive in the Faculty of Arts and in the Faculty of medicine. While Fafunwa (1967) reported that direct entry students performed better than preliminary year students.
Although there is no relationship between the mode of entry and degree performance of DELSU students at the 300 and 400 levels, one striking observation from the results presented in Tables 1,2 and 3 in that the Direct Entry mode student perform better than the other two modes. This may be as a result of maturity since this group of students are older them the other two subgroups.
The study concludes that the performance of students in Delta State University has no relationship with their mode of entry. Based on the findings and conclusion the following recommendation was made that pre-degree, UME and D/E should continue to be used as modes of admission into Universities, since performance is not significantly related to mode of entry. An attempt should be made to study empirically the pre-degree programme which is the baby of the university to identify its weakness and then institute corrective measures designed to improve their quality.
However, the finding from this study should not be generalized as the sample used for the study was drawn from only the faculty of education. For a better generalization, another study should be conducted include all the facilities which admit students through pre-degree i.e. Agriculture, Arts, Education Science and Social Science.
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Table 1: Summary of CGPA distribution among the three mode of entry for 200 level in 2004/2005 session
* Figures in bracket are in percentage.
Table 2: Summary of CGPA distribution among the three mode of entry for 300 level in 2005/2006
* Figures in bracket are in percentage.
Table 3: Summary of CGPA distribution among the three mode of entry for 400 levels in 2006/2007.
* Figures in bracket are in percentage.
Table 4: 200L Summary of X2-test
Table 5: 300 level Summary of X2-test
Table 6: 400 level summary of X2-test