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JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 7 NO 2, DECEMBER, 2009

ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES FOR QUALITATIVE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA’S DELTA STATE

Enamiroro Patrick Oghuvbu
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Delta State University, Abraka
E-mail: enamiroro2001@yahoo.com

   
Abstract
The study analysed the quantity and quality of basic ICT resources available in primary and junior secondary schools in Delta State. The instruments used for the study were derived from the report of the staff distribution and information   and infrastructure sub-committee set up by the Ministry of Education. Seventeen local government areas were selected using stratified random sampling from the three senatorial districts. All the schools (1115) students (23,6942) and computer science teachers were used for the study. Four research questions were raised and answered using descriptive statistics frequency table, percentage, mean and bar charts. The study revealed a computer teacher-students ratio of 1:6615 in junior secondary schools, none in primary schools, 100% of the schools without internet services, video laboratories, television sets, five computers in the 844 primary schools 704 computers in the 271 junior secondary schools. ICT resources are not available in schools for a qualitative UBE programme implementation in Delta State.

Keyword:  Qualitative; information; universal; resources; technology

 


Introduction
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme launched on 30th September 1999 is universal, free and compulsory. It has the implication, according to Obanya (2000), of inclusiveness-persons in all manners and physical conditions will benefit from the programme. Special needs of all sectors of the population will be taken into account and encouragements to the provision of facilities for early childhood care and socialization are expected, with due attention to needs of specific social groups and geographical zones of the country.

The UBE is designed to lay the solid foundations for scientific and technological development in Nigeria. In order to achieve these objectives, there is need for adequate information and communication technology (ICT) facilities, since this will enhances the quality of the UBE (Johnson,  2007).  The quality of ICT personnel and facilities will also enhance qualitatively the implementation of the UBE. There is a positive relationship between educational resources and students academic performance. This is in agreement with Nwangwu (1997) who believes that teaching materials facilitate teaching and learning activities. Adequate ICT facilities could promote school attendance and create a good school environment which affects positively academic achievement of pupils (Oghuvbu, 2009; Olutola, 2000). In agreement with these, the Nigerian Educational Research Council (1998) emphasized that for a good education programme like the UBE to guarantee quality output, it must be serviced regularly with appropriately trained and motivated teaching staff, adequately supplied with necessary facilities and equipment.
 
The word today is a global village.  This is made possible by the greatest achievement in the twentieth century, the development of ICT in all aspects of human struggle for improvement. The acquisition of this skill is mainly through formal education-the school, which is a social system. Hence this study, theoretical framework is based on social systems theory, centred on the school made up of human and material resources.

Statement of the problem
The percentage drop-out at primary and junior secondary school level is high especially in the rural areas (Oghuvbu, 2008). Unemployment problem is increasing, leading to a geometric

increase in crimes among the youths. A good percentage of the graduates from schools is unemployable due to lack of practical skills. The objective of the UBE, if achieved could help reduce these social problems. The present unhealthy situation calls to mind certain questions. Are there adequate information communication technology facilities for qualitative implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme? Are the available facilities proportionately distributed among schools in Delta State, Nigeria?
 
Purpose of the study
Today all over the world, research in every discipline requires a good knowledge of information communication technology. Hence, it is necessary to investigate and analyse the availability of human and material ICT resources for the implementation of the UBE prgoramme in Delta State.
This study, therefore analysed the computer teacher-student ratio in riverine, rural, semi-urban and urban primary and junior secondary schools. It also analysed the number of computers, television sets, per school, and number of schools with power supply, video laboratory and internet services.
 
Research Questions
The study was designed to provide answers to the following questions.
1. Are there adequate qualified ICT teachers for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in different locations in Delta State?
2. Are the available basic ICT facilities in schools adequate in quantity and quality for the implementation of the UBE programme?

3. What are the ICT resources needs for qualitative implementation of the UBE in Delta State?
4. Is there a difference between the percentage observed and expected basic ICT resources in schools for a qualitative UBE programme in Delta State?
 
Method and procedure
The population consisted of 489,420 students in the 344 junior secondary schools and 391,491 pupils in the 1,120 primary schools and all the computer science teachers in schools in Delta State.
 A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 17 from the 25 local government areas in the three senatorial districts in Delta State. The 66,144 students, 170,798 pupils, computer science teachers and ICT facilities in the 844 primary schools and 271 junior secondary schools selected constituted the sample used in this study. The data used were derived from the reports of the staff distribution and infrastructure sub-committee of the Committee for the Formation of a Roadmap Toward Improving Standards of Education in Delta State, Volumes 1 and 2, December, 2007.
 
Data analysis
In analysing the data collected, the researcher made use of simple percentages, mean, bar chart, and frequency tables.
 
Results
The results of the data analysis are presented according to research questions.
 
Research question 1: Are there adequate qualified ICT teachers for the UBE in different locations in Delta State?


Table 1:


 
Locations

No. of schools

Enrolment

Specialist teachers

Computer science

Integrated science

Intro. tech.

Teachers-students ratio computer sci.

English

Maths

Urban

103

30177

160

161

2

105

11

1:15089

Semi-urban

49

12405

79

72

3

67

10

1:4135

Riverine

27

5605

10

17

2

49

2

1:803

Rural

92

17957

94

82

3

49

12

1:5986

Total

271

66144

343

332

10

270

33

1:6615

Teacher-Students Ratio

 

 

1:193

1:100

1:6615

1:245

1:2005

 

Source: Computed from fieldwork.
 

 From table 1, there are no computer science teachers in schools. This is worst in the riverine areas with computer teacher-students ratio of 1:803 and only ten computer science teachers in the two hundred and seventy one junior secondary schools. There was no computer science teacher in the eight hundred and forty-four primary schools used in the study. Also the teacher-students ratio in other ICT related subjects were above approved minimum, revealing that there are no qualified ICT teachers for the implementation of the UBE programe. Also school location does not influence the availability of computer science teachers in Delta State, Nigeria.
 
Question 2: Are the available basic ICT facilities adequate in quality and quality for the implementation of the UBE programme?

 
Table 2:


Level

No. of schools

Students enrolment

Basic ICT Facilities

Computers

Internet service

Lab. video

TV

Power elec.

Primary

844

170,798

5

00

00

00

40
(5%)

Junior Sec.

271

66,144

704

00

00

150

85
(31%)

Total

1155

 

709

00

00

150

125

Source: Computed from fieldwork.
 


From table 2, 804 (95%) of the primary schools had no power and 100% had no ICT facilities. 186(69%) of the junior secondary schools had no power, while there were 704 computers and 150 television sets for 66,144 students. All the schools had no internet services and video laboratory. This is an indication that basic ICT facilities are not available for the qualitative implementation of the UBE programme in Delta State, Nigeria.
 
Question 3: What are the basic ICT resources needs for qualitative implementation of the UBE in Delta State?


Table 3:


Level

Computer science teachers

Internet services

Lab. video

T.V.

Power supply

Computer desks

Sch. desk datio

Comp. Teacher Ratio

Primary

739

1,150

1,150

1,150

804

33,760

1:40

1:2

Junior Sec.

261

271

271

121

186

10136

1:40

1:2

Total

1000

1,421

1,421

1,271

990

43,896

 

 

Source: Computed from fieldwork.

 
From table 3, the state required 43,896 computers and 1,000 computer science teachers for the UBE programme and a video laboratory and internet service each in 1,421 schools. Nine hundred and ninety schools required power supply and one thousand, two hundred and seventy one needed television sets.
 
Question 4: Is there a difference between the percentage observed and expected basic ICT resources in schools for a qualitative UBE programme in Delta State?

 
 
Table 4: Percentage observed and expected basic ICT resources in schools.

 

Computer science teachers

Computer units

Internet service

T.V.

Video lab.

Power

Total

%

Observed

0.4

2

-

13.4

-

11.2

27

4.5

Required

99.6

98

100

86.6

100

88.8

573

95.5

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

600

100

Source: Computed from fieldwork.
 

From table 4, only 4.5% of the required basic ICT resources are available in schools. This shows a difference between observed and expected basic ICT resources in schools for a qualitative UBE programme in Delta State.
   
Discussion

The results of the study showed inadequate ICT personnel in junior secondary and primary schools for the implementation of the U B E programme in Delta State. School location does not influence the availability of ICT teachers as revealed in the teacher- student ratio of 1:15089 in urban, 1: 4135 semi urban 1:803 riverine and 1:5986 in rural schools. There is a serious problem of inadequate computer science teachers in Delta State. The study also revealed that there are no basic ICT facilities in all primary schools, only 704 computer units and 150 television sets are in 271 Junior secondary schools. Internet services and video laboratories are not available in primary and junior secondary schools in the State.

The result of the study showed serious problems in terms of ICT resources availability for the UBE programmed. The state is yet to prepare for a qualitative implementation of the UBE in order to solve some of the social problems facing educational development. These could result in a continuous decline in quality of primary and secondary education as demonstrated in the percentage increase of drop-outs, unemployment and crime rate in the state. These findings are consistent with Oghuvbu (2009), Olusola (2007), Nwangwu (1997). For qualitative implementation of UBE programmes, the state needs 1,000 Computer science teachers and 43,896 computer units in schools. Schools should be provided with 1,421 video laboratories 1,271 television sets, and 990 power (electricity) generators. The provision of these resources  will enhance the quality of the UBE in Delta State.
 

Conclusions and Recommendations
There is a serious problem of inadequate ICT resources for the UBE programme in Delta State. There are no power supply units, computer science teachers, internet services, and  television sets in schools. The Universal Basic Education Commission should provide required basic ICT resources in all primary and junior secondary schools for a qualitative UBE.
                               
 
References
Johnson, O. A.  (2007) Enhancing quality in higher education through information and communication technology in Nigeria Access, Equity and Quality in Higher Education. Nigeria Association for Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP) Ibadan,505-512.
 
Nigeria Educational Research Council (1998): National secondary
educational resources workshop Report on Technical Studies. Lagos: Ministry of Information Division.
 
Nwangwu, N. E. (1997) The environment of crisis in Nigerian educational
System, Co-operatives  Education 33(1) 87-95.
 
Obanya, P. A. I. (2001) Federal Republic of Nigeria implementation guidelines 
for the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme The Nigerian Academy of Education. Benin: Ambik Press Ltd
 
Oghuvbu, E. P. (2009).  Attendance and academic performance of students in
secondary schools: a correlational approach. Journal of Study Home and Community Science. India: 3(2) in Press.  
 
Olutola, K. S. (2001) Relationship between educational facilities and academic performance of students in Anabra state. Journal of Nigeria Educational Research Association 8(1) 33 -38.