
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 7 NO 2, DECEMBER, 2009 CORRELATING CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT SCORES TO JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION FINAL SCORES IN IMO STATE J.I. Nwaogazie
Abstract Keywords: Correlation; continuous assessment; examination; performance Introduction Bloom (1971) states that evaluation is the As performance in the comprehensive examination decides who gets promoted into the next class or who got to ensure private certificate, students stopped at nothing to ensure that they made it. Examination malpractices of one form or another became a way out of the predicament. As Yoleye (1980) states: One reason for such a high incidence of examination malpractices is the fact that a single final examination is too crucial in the temptation to ensure success by all means (fair of foul) is high. educational experts under the chairmanship of Chief S.O. Adebo, to look into the report of the curriculum conference of 1969 and formulate a New National Policy on Education. In 1977, an implementation task force was set up to study the New National Policy on Education and prepare a blueprint for its implementation. In 1979, the National Policy on Education for Nigeria was approved by the Federal Government. One of the distinction features of New National Policy an education is its emphasis on continuous assessment. “Education Assessment and Evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole or in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual” (National Policy on Education 1977, Page7 (7). Continuous assessment is the systematic collection of marks or grades over a period of time and their aggregation into a final grade. It is a method of using the recorded performance of each individual to help him improve on his academic achievement, a means of providing adequate information about a student to parents, guardians or educational authorities. Continuous assessment, as defined by the Federal Ministry of Education (1985), is a mechanism whereby a final grading of a student in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of behaviour systematically takes account of all his performances during a given period of school….. The rationale for continuous assessment is that the former system which assesses the learner through an external examination imposes external control on the curriculum and leads teachers to give up sound long range instruction in order to “teach to the test”. A system of examination which considers the learners performance throughout the school period is more likely to be valid and more indicative of the learner’s overall ability than a single comprehensive examination. Continuous assessment is the answer to this noble idea. It also removes the fear and high anxiety inherent in the old system of evaluation. Continuous assessment affords the teacher the opportunity to introduce innovation into his teaching. It also facilitates the work of the guidance counselor in directing the students towards achieving the aims of the new educational system which emphasize the independence and self reliance of the individual. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between continuous assessment scores and JSCE scores, and specifically, to
The understated research questions guided the conduct of the study.
The study tested four hypothesis at (P<0.0.5). Method n = N/ 1 + N (e)2 Where n = sample size sought; Collection of data for the study was done using cumulative records of student’s scores in continuous assessment and JSCE grades obtained from the selected schools. Results Research question one:What is the relationship between the continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE scores in English studies? Table 1: The relationship between the continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE across in English studies.
The table shows that the calculated correlation coefficient (r) between the two variables (x) and (y) is –0.13. The result is that the relationship between continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE scores in English studies is negative. Research question two Table 2. The relationship between the continuous assessment scores in Mathematics and JSCE scores in Mathematics.
Table 2 shows that the correlation coefficient calculated (r) between variables (x) and (y) is –0.60. The result is that the degree of relationship between continuous assessment scores in mathematics and JSCE scores is –0.60, which means a negative relationship. Research question threeWhat is the relationship between continuous assessment scores in Integrated Science and JSCE scores in Integrated Science? Table 3. The relationship between the continuous assessment scores in Integrated Science and JSCE scores in Integrated Science.
Table 3. shows that the calculated correlation coefficient (r) between variables (x) and (y) is –0.01. The result is that the relationship between the continuous assessment scores in integrated science and JSCE scores in integrated science is negative. Research question fourWhat is the relationship between continuous assessment scores in social studies and JSCE scores in social studies?
Table 4 shows that the correlation coefficient (r) between variables (x) and (y) is –0.15. The result is that there is a negative relationship between continuous assessment in social studies JSCE scores in social studies. Testing of hypothesis one H01: There is no significant relationship between the students’ continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE scores in English studies. Table 5. The relationship between the continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE scores in English studies.
It can be discerned from table 5 that 400 students have a sum (åx) of 5702, sum of squares (åx2) of 9414 in English studies continuous assessment. Their 1997 JSCE scores sum (åy) was 14860 and sum of squares (åy2 ) is 569018. The sum of product (åxy) of their CA and JSCE scores is 212124. The table has also shown that the calculated correlation coefficient (r) between the two variables is –0.3, the unbiased error of the obtained correlation (Qr) is 0.05 and the Zr is –2.6. Testing of hypothesis two
It is clearly seen from table 6 that 400 students and a sum (åX) of 5633 sum of squares (åx2) of 84009 in Mathematics continuous assessment their 1997 JSCE scores sum (åY)13769and sum of squares (åy2 ) is 462909.The sum of product (∑XY) of their continuous assessment scores and JSCE scores is 189707. The table also showed the calculated, correlation coefficient between the two variables is 0.60, the unbiased standard error of the obtained correlation (Qr) is 0.05 and the Zr is 12. Since the magnitude of calculated value of Z(1.96) at 0.05 alpha level under 398 degrees of freedom for a nondirectional test, the second null hypothesis is rejected. That is, there is a statistically significant relationship between students C.A. scores and JSCE scores in Mathematics. The inverse correlation (0.60) implies that students who made high C.A. scores got low scores in the JSCE. Testing of hypothesis three
Table 7 show that 400 students had a sum (∑X) of 5766, sum of squares (∑X2) of 94798 in Integrated Science continuous assessment. Their 1997 JSCE scores sum (∑Y) 13319 and sum of square (∑Y2) is 486758. the table has also shown that the calculated correlation coefficient (r) between the two variables is 0.01; the unbiased standard error of the obtained correlation (Qr) is 0.05 and the zr is 0.2. Since the magnitude of the calculated Zratio of the correlation (0.2) is less than the critical value of Z(1.96) at 0.05 level of significance under 398 degrees of freedom for nondirectional test, the third null hypothesis is accepted. That is there is no statistically significant relationship between students continuous assessment scores and JSCE scores. Testing Of Hypothesis Four
Table 8 shows that 400 students who took he 1997 JSCE has a sum (X) of 5903, sum of squares (X2) of 104530 in Social Studies continuous assessment. Their 1997 JSCE scores sum (Y) is 14024 and sum of squares (Y2) is 517148 while the sum of product (XY) of their CA and JSCE scores is 203843. The table was also shown that the calculated correlation (r) between the two variables is 0.5; the unbiased standard error of the obtained correlation (Qr) is 0.05 and the Zr is 3. Since the magnitude of the calculated Zratio of correlation (3) is greater than the critical value of Z (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance under 390 degrees of freedom for a nondirectional test, the fourth null hypothesis is rejected. That is, there is a statically significant relationship between students’ continuous assessment scores in Social Studies and their JSCE scores in Social Studies. Discussion The result shows that the coefficient of correlation between the continuous assessment scores in English studies and JSCE scores in English Studies in Imo State is 0.13 as shown in table 4.1 which implies a negative relationship. The magnitude of the calculated Zratio of correlation (2.6) is greater than the critical value of Z(1.96) at ).05 alpha level under 390 degrees of freedom. Hence, the fires null hypothesis is rejected based on the calculated value of Z and critical value of Z. This indicates that these is a significant relationship between students continuous assessment scores in English studies and their 1597 JSCE scores in English Studies in Imo State. This means that the higher a student ‘s C.A. score in English studies, the lower his/her JSCE score in English Studies. Results of hypothesis one upholds Nwana’s view (1982) that students who performed well in internal examinations free from any form of malpractice are bound to correspondingly do some in external examination. Other factors that would have led to the significant relationship between the C.A. scores and examination scores in English Language include:
Table 2 shows that the correlation coefficient between the C.A. scores in Mathematics and JSCE scores in Mathematics in Imo State is 0.60 which is a negative correlation or inverse relationship. The magnitude of the calculated Yratio of correlation (12) is greater than the critical value of Z(1.96) at 0.05 level of significance under B98 degrees of freedom fir a non directional test. Hence, the second null hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is a significant relationship between students C.A. scores in Mathematics and JSCE scores in Mathematics. The inverse correlation 0.60 implies that students who made high C.A. scores got low scores in the JSCE. These findings support earlier work undertaken by Odwyer (1993) where she observed negative correlation in performance between internally generated continuous assessments scores and senior secondary school certificate examination results, obtained by the same candidates in Imilis Secondary School, Calabar, in commerce form 1989 to 1992 Odwyer attributed the nonconsistency in performance among the students to:
The result in table 3 shows that the coefficient of relation between the C.A. scores in Integrated Science and JSCE in Integrated Science is 0.01 which is a negative relationship. The calculated Zratio of the correlation (0.02 is less than the critical value of (1.96) at 0.05) level of significance under 390 degree of random for a nondirectional test. Thus, the third null hypothesis is accepted which implies that there is no statically significant relationship between the student’s continuous assessment scores in Integrated Science and JSCE scores in Integrated Science in Imo State. This means that students who made high C.A. score Integrated Science made low in the JSCE Integrated Science. Results of hypothesis three disagree with Adah (1989), whose research (unpublished) aimed at predicting the performance of students in the senior secondary chemistry certificate examination alone, based on their JSS III Integrated science certificate examination result. But, Ibe (1993) reported a high positive correlation when he correlated the continuous assessment scores obtained in 1993/94 session with the State’s common entrance into the school reasons for the high positive correlations. Other factors that would have led to the significant relationship between C.A. scores and examination scores in Social Studies include: This result also is in agreement with Becker and Engloman’s views (1976) that students with high or low academic achievements in school end up with corresponding grades, provided there is good quality of staff, conducive environment and uniformity in standard of examination and assessment tools. Considering the quality of staff and facilities on ground, and other factors like strict supervision, standard and competiveness of the examination in Federal Government Colleges, analysis of hypothesis four agrees to an extent with Andortan (1985) in his study to determine the predictive value of continuous assessment scores among 100 randomly selected JSSI students of Federal, Girls College, Calabar and observed a high positive correlation between students scores in continuous assessment and their promotion examination to JSS2. Implications of results Recommendations . Workshops and seminar should be organized for teachers in the concept and application of continuous assessment. Refereces Akusoba, E.O. (1982), Continuous assessment as now practiced in the schools and the West African school certificate results ANVIL Vol. 1 Bloom, B.S., Hactrep, I.J. and George, M. F. (1971). Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of students learning USA :McGrawHill Inc. Brown, J.N. (1982), Grade point average and internal examination, Education Review PP. 56  57. Dalton,S. (1974), Predictive validity of high school and C.A. scores for minority students,
Educational and psychological measurement; vol.34, PP. 367 – 370 Eke, A (1993), Prediction of academic success in school certificate examination from national common entrance examination score; unpublished M.Ed Thesis: University of Ife. Eze, D. (1981) The CA cumulative scores as predictors academic achievement in junior secondary school examination. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis of U.N.N. Nsukka. Federal Ministry of Education (1981): National policy of education (Revised), Lagos: NERC Press. Holmes, B. and Lawre, S.A. (1969), Education and examination; The World year Book of Education New York; Harcourt, Brace and World Inc. Ibanga, F. (1982), Psychology for Researchers, London: Macmillan.
Nwana, C.C. (1982): Educational measurement for teachers, Walton: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Nwigwe, G. (1988) Grades and teachers’ forecasts, Educational Research Vol. 13, PP. 2835. Nworgu, B.G. (1991), Educational research (basic issues and methodology), Ibadan: Wisdom.
Odwsr, O. (1993), Relationship between academic performance in mock and senior secondary school certificate commerce examination; unublished M. Ed thesis, University of Calabar.

