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JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 6 NO 2, DECEMBER, 2008

DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE: GENDER AND LOCATION ANALYSIS.

Dr. Enamiroro Patrick Oghuvbu
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

 

Abstract
 This study analyzed the distribution of teachers among secondary schools based on gender and school location and implication on the achievement of the Universal Basic Education Prgoramme. A checklist was used to collect data on the distribution of teachers according to local government areas. The twenty-five local government area containing the 386 secondary school and 11,112 teachers in the 2006/2007 academic session were used for this study. Three research questions were raised and answered using percentages. The results of the study revealed that: female teachers (55.2%) are more than male teachers (44.8%), more male teachers (67.6%) in the rural schools. Only 20% of the teachers are in the rural schools. The average number of teachers per school is more in Delta Central Senatorial District (33), Delta North (28), and South (24). There are more urban schools in Delta Central; Senatorial District followed by North and  South with more riverine schools. This revealed that teachers are not equally distributed among secondary schools. School location significantly influence gender distribution of teachers among secondary schools. These could affect the achievement of the objectives of the universal Basic Education Programme in Delta State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Distribution, Teachers, Rural, Urban, Gender

 

 


Introduction
A major function of the state Ministry of Education is the employment and positive utilization of teachers, in the Teaching Serving Board. Teachers, specialist in the impartation of knowledge to learners are directly controlled by the Teaching Service Board in Delta State. There can be no effective learning without the teacher. “the teacher is the pivot round which the agencies of education operate”. In the present day Nigeria, teachers duties apart from teaching, include; administration, leadership, counseling and implementation of government policies (Egbule and Ewunyenga, 2000:3).

Teachers are the main actors in the implementation of education programmes. The achievement of objectives of the Universal Basic Education Programme depend largely on the quality and quantity of teachers in secondary schools.

Certain factors affects the distribution of teachers in schools. These includes; gender, social status, qualification, area of specialization, government policy, cultural and religions belief (Oghuvbu, 2007) (Okoro, 2005). It is a common practice that married female teachers serve in their husband stations. These affects even distribution of teachers. Rural schools suffer more from this gender influence on teachers distribution, (Ikoya, 2008), since most married women serve in urban schools. Parents complain of poor quality instruction especially in rural schools. Qualitative instruction resulting into qualitative education can only be achieved through even distribution of available teachers.

In a study on gender inequality in Nigeria education, Okojie (1998) concluded that there is a gender gap in the access to education and the women received less education than men. He also noted that illiteracy rate is higher in rural area. He posited that despite increase in enrolment at all levels of education, fewer girls go to school than boys. However, Emetaron (1999) has a different view from his finding in his study, “the decline in male enrolment in Post-primary Schools in Eastern States”. There are more girls than boys in schools in the Eastern State of Nigeria.

The UBE has as its objectives, the following: developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion. The provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-young age. Reducing drastically the incidence of dropout  from the formal school system through improved relevance, quality and efficiency. Catering for the learning need of young persons, who for one reason or another, have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complimentary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education. (Salamu and Ekemini, 2000:335). These objectives of the UBE programme cannot be achieved without quality teachers in all schools, especially rural schools.

Statement of Problem
Secondary school in Delta State were divided into Junior and Senior Schools in line with 6-3-3-4 for effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBE). As stated in the National Policy of Education (NPE) Nigeria Certificate of Education (NCE) teachers are to be in Junior Secondary. Before now, both Junior and Senior secondary schools were under the same leadership, which made it possible for principals to manage available number of teachers. Many new junior secondary school created are seriously facing the problems of having no teachers, not inadequacy especially in the rural and riverine schools. Is this serious administrative problem due to unequal distribution of teachers? What is the current school teacher’s ratio and rural, urban, semi-urban teachers ratio in secondary schools in Delta State.

Purpose of the Study
This study identified teacher’s distribution ratio among senatorial Districts, school teacher’s ratio, gender ratio in urban and rural areas in Delta State. The result of the study will enable educational administrators provide immediate solution to the serious problems of lack of

 

teachers in rural junior secondary schools, for effective implementation of the UBE programme in Delta  State, Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions guide the study.

  1. Are teachers equally distributed among the senatorial districts according to number of school?
  2. What is the percentage difference between male and female teachers and between rural, semi-urban  and urban schools?
  3. Are there more male teachers in rural schools than female teachers?

Hypothesis
            Location does not significantly influence the gender distribution of teachers among secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

Method and Procedure
The population of the study consisted of the 386 secondary schools and the 11,112 teachers in the 386 secondary schools during 2006/2007 academic session in Delta State, Nigeria. The population was used for the study. A checklist was used to collect the name, number of schools and teachers by sex according to  local government area, from Post-Primary Education Board, Asaba. Department of Planning and Statistics.

Data Analysis
In analysing the data collected, the researcher made use of percentages, mean and chi-square statistics at 0.05 level of significant..

Results
Research Question 1: Are teachers equally distributed among the senatorial district according to number of schools?


Table 1: Distribution of Schools and Teachers according to Senatorial District.

 

S/N

Senatorial Dis. Delta

No. of
L. G. A

No. of Schools

No. of
Teachers

 

Total

Gender (Ratio) Relative Freq (%)

Average No. Per Sch Teacher per Sch.

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

North

9

144

2155

1874

4029

5
0.53
(53%)

5
0.47
(47%)

28

2

Central

8

144

1858

2918

4796

4
0.39
(39%)

6
0.61
(61%)

33

3

South

8

98

963

1344

2307

4
0.42
(42%)

6
0.58
(58%)

24

 

Total

25

386

4976

6136

11,112

4
0.45
(45%)

6
0.55
(55%)

29

Source: Computed from fieldwork.


From table 1, female teachers (55%) are more than male teachers (45%) in Delta State. Senatorial analysis also showed more female teachers in Central (61%), South (58%) while North more male (53%). Average number of teachers per school is highest in Central (33), with more urban schools, followed by North (28) with more semi-urban schools and South (24) with more rural and riverine schools. This showed that location influence distribution of teachers i.e. more teachers especially female are posted to urban schools. Also table 1 revealed that teachers are not equally distributed among the three senatorial district using average number of teachers per school. There are more teachers in central senatorial district with equal number of school with North Senatorial district. This may be as a result of teacher students ratio and concentration of female teacher in urban schools.

Question 2: What are the percentage difference between male and female teachers?

In table 2, total number of male teachers is 4976 (45%), female teachers 6,136 (55%). Difference between male and female is (1160) (10%) i.e. female teachers are more than male teachers with 1160(10%) difference.

Question 3: Are there more male than female teachers in rural schools?


Table 2: Distribution of Teachers according to School Location

School Location/Sex

Male

Female

Total

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Rural

1500

67.6

719

32.4

2219

20

Semi-Urban

2087

49.9

2092

50.1

4179

37.6

Urban

1389

29.5

3325

70.5

4714

42.4

 

4976

44.8

6136

55.2

11,112

100

Source: Computed from fieldwork

 


From table 2, percentage of male teachers (67.6%) in rural schools is more than female teachers (32.4%) considering number of teachers posted to rural schools. The overall percentage of teachers teaching in rural schools (20%) is less than those serving in semi-urban and urban schools. Only (29.5%)  male teachers compared to (70.5%) female teachers are serving in urban schools. This showed that gender affects the distribution of teachers in secondary schools in Delta State.

Hypothesis
Location does not significantly influence the gender distribution of teachers among secondary schools in Delta State.


 

Table 3: Chi-square Contingency Table of Location and Gender Distribution of Teachers

Items

Male

Female

Total

Cal. Value

Table Value

Cramer’s Phi Coeff

Lambda Coeff (λ)

Rural

1500
(993.7)

719
(1225.3)

2219

 

 

959.2

 

 

3.84

 

 

0.2938

 

 

0.16

Semi-urban

2087
(1871.4)

2092
(2307.6)

4179

Urban

1389
(2111)

3325
(2603)

4714

Total

4976

6136

11,112


From table 3, calculated chi-square (959.2) is greater than chi-square table value (3.84), showed that location significantly influence the gender distribution of teachers among secondary schools in Delta State. The Cramer’s phi coefficient positive value of 0.2938 also showed the relationship between location and gender distribution of teachers. This is also confirmed with the Lambda coefficient (λ) value of 0.16, a prediction of association between school location and sex of teachers among schools is asymmetric. This is consisted with results in tables one and two, more female teachers (70.5%) than male teachers (29.5%) in urban schools.

Discussion
This study revealed unproportional distribution of teachers among the secondary schools in Delta State. There are more female teachers (55.2%) with the highest number  serving in urban schools (70.5%). Only  29.5% of the teachers in urban schools are male. The problems of lack of teachers in rural; schools may be as a result of female teacher refusal to work in rural schools, since they are more than male teachers. The result contradicts Okojie (1998 ) study on more male than female teachers. Gender inequality is one of the major problems facing proper distribution of teachers in rural  secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. This study is consistent with Emetarom (1999). With more female than male teachers, an indication of improvement and increase in female enrolment resulting in the reduction of the gender gap in primary and secondary education as stipulated by UNESCO (1995). It also showed that more of the school dropouts who re-enter into the school through Adult literacy programmes such as National Teachers Institution, N.C.E., and Degree Programmes were women

Conclusions and Recommendation
There are more female teachers (55.2%) than male teachers (44.8%) in secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. There are more male teachers (67.6%) in rural schools than female teachers (32.4%) in rural schools. There is a difference in the distribution between urban (42.2%), semi-urban (37.6) and rural (20%) teachers in secondary schools in Delta State. There are no teachers in most rural junior secondary school. Gender and school location influences the distribution of teachers among secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. This could affect the achievement of the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Delta State Nigeria.

The State Ministry of Education  backup with a law by the House of Assembly, should distribute teacher in respective of sex and social status equally between rural and urban  junior secondary schools, using the number of subjects taught and offered by students.

References

Egbule, J. F. and  Eqwunygenga, E. J. (2000) The Role of the Teacher in the
21st Century,  Journal of Teacher Education. Vol. 2(1) 1-6.

Emetarom, U. G. (1999) The Decline in Male Enrolment in Post-Primary Schools in Eastern States of Nigeria: Trends and Strategic Management Issues, ESUT Journal of Education. Vol. 3 (3) 320 – 333.

Ikoya, P.O. (2008) Current Issues in Educational Management: Being a Tracing Programme organized by Delta State Universal Basic Education Board for Principals, Vice Principals and Counselor of Juniors Secondary Schools in Educational Management, Abraka. EDSERVE CONSULT (41 - 46).

Oghuvbu, E. P. (2007) Leadership Problems in Secondary School in Nigeria: Teachers Perspectives, Journal of Educational Research and Policies. Calabar. Vol. 2(3) 91 – 96.

Okojie, P. (1998) in Osindeinde, H. S. A. (2000): Gender Inequalities and the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. The Nigerian Academy of Education. Benin-City:  Ambik Press Limited. (302 – 319).

Okoro. J. (2005) Teacher Education and Professionals in the Context of Nigeria Educational System. Being a paper presented at Matriculation Ceremony of N.C.E. Programme at N.T.I. Eku Study Centre.

Salami, L. I. and Ekemini, E. U. (2000) Using the UBE to Bridge the Gender Gap in Educational Opportunities and Participation. The Nigerian Academy of

Education. Benin City: Ambik Press Limited. (334 - 338).