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Dr. Enamiroro Patrick Oghuvbu
Keywords: Distribution, Teachers, Rural, Urban, Gender
Teachers are the main actors in the implementation of education programmes. The achievement of objectives of the Universal Basic Education Programme depend largely on the quality and quantity of teachers in secondary schools.
Certain factors affects the distribution of teachers in schools. These includes; gender, social status, qualification, area of specialization, government policy, cultural and religions belief (Oghuvbu, 2007) (Okoro, 2005). It is a common practice that married female teachers serve in their husband stations. These affects even distribution of teachers. Rural schools suffer more from this gender influence on teachers distribution, (Ikoya, 2008), since most married women serve in urban schools. Parents complain of poor quality instruction especially in rural schools. Qualitative instruction resulting into qualitative education can only be achieved through even distribution of available teachers.
In a study on gender inequality in Nigeria education, Okojie (1998) concluded that there is a gender gap in the access to education and the women received less education than men. He also noted that illiteracy rate is higher in rural area. He posited that despite increase in enrolment at all levels of education, fewer girls go to school than boys. However, Emetaron (1999) has a different view from his finding in his study, “the decline in male enrolment in Post-primary Schools in Eastern States”. There are more girls than boys in schools in the Eastern State of Nigeria.
The UBE has as its objectives, the following: developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion. The provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-young age. Reducing drastically the incidence of dropout from the formal school system through improved relevance, quality and efficiency. Catering for the learning need of young persons, who for one reason or another, have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complimentary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education. (Salamu and Ekemini, 2000:335). These objectives of the UBE programme cannot be achieved without quality teachers in all schools, especially rural schools.
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
teachers in rural junior secondary schools, for effective implementation of the UBE programme in Delta State, Nigeria.
Method and Procedure
Table 1: Distribution of Schools and Teachers according to Senatorial District.
Source: Computed from fieldwork.
From table 1, female teachers (55%) are more than male teachers (45%) in Delta State. Senatorial analysis also showed more female teachers in Central (61%), South (58%) while North more male (53%). Average number of teachers per school is highest in Central (33), with more urban schools, followed by North (28) with more semi-urban schools and South (24) with more rural and riverine schools. This showed that location influence distribution of teachers i.e. more teachers especially female are posted to urban schools. Also table 1 revealed that teachers are not equally distributed among the three senatorial district using average number of teachers per school. There are more teachers in central senatorial district with equal number of school with North Senatorial district. This may be as a result of teacher students ratio and concentration of female teacher in urban schools.
Question 2: What are the percentage difference between male and female teachers?
In table 2, total number of male teachers is 4976 (45%), female teachers 6,136 (55%). Difference between male and female is (1160) (10%) i.e. female teachers are more than male teachers with 1160(10%) difference.
Question 3: Are there more male than female teachers in rural schools?
Table 2: Distribution of Teachers according to School Location
Source: Computed from fieldwork
From table 2, percentage of male teachers (67.6%) in rural schools is more than female teachers (32.4%) considering number of teachers posted to rural schools. The overall percentage of teachers teaching in rural schools (20%) is less than those serving in semi-urban and urban schools. Only (29.5%) male teachers compared to (70.5%) female teachers are serving in urban schools. This showed that gender affects the distribution of teachers in secondary schools in Delta State.
Table 3: Chi-square Contingency Table of Location and Gender Distribution of Teachers
From table 3, calculated chi-square (959.2) is greater than chi-square table value (3.84), showed that location significantly influence the gender distribution of teachers among secondary schools in Delta State. The Cramer’s phi coefficient positive value of 0.2938 also showed the relationship between location and gender distribution of teachers. This is also confirmed with the Lambda coefficient (λ) value of 0.16, a prediction of association between school location and sex of teachers among schools is asymmetric. This is consisted with results in tables one and two, more female teachers (70.5%) than male teachers (29.5%) in urban schools.
Conclusions and Recommendation
The State Ministry of Education backup with a law by the House of Assembly, should distribute teacher in respective of sex and social status equally between rural and urban junior secondary schools, using the number of subjects taught and offered by students.
Egbule, J. F. and Eqwunygenga, E. J. (2000) The Role of the Teacher in the
Emetarom, U. G. (1999) The Decline in Male Enrolment in Post-Primary Schools in Eastern States of Nigeria: Trends and Strategic Management Issues, ESUT Journal of Education. Vol. 3 (3) 320 – 333.
Ikoya, P.O. (2008) Current Issues in Educational Management: Being a Tracing Programme organized by Delta State Universal Basic Education Board for Principals, Vice Principals and Counselor of Juniors Secondary Schools in Educational Management, Abraka. EDSERVE CONSULT (41 - 46).
Oghuvbu, E. P. (2007) Leadership Problems in Secondary School in Nigeria: Teachers Perspectives, Journal of Educational Research and Policies. Calabar. Vol. 2(3) 91 – 96.
Okojie, P. (1998) in Osindeinde, H. S. A. (2000): Gender Inequalities and the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. The Nigerian Academy of Education. Benin-City: Ambik Press Limited. (302 – 319).
Okoro. J. (2005) Teacher Education and Professionals in the Context of Nigeria Educational System. Being a paper presented at Matriculation Ceremony of N.C.E. Programme at N.T.I. Eku Study Centre.
Salami, L. I. and Ekemini, E. U. (2000) Using the UBE to Bridge the Gender Gap in Educational Opportunities and Participation. The Nigerian Academy of
Education. Benin City: Ambik Press Limited. (334 - 338).