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JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 6 NO 2, DECEMBER, 2008

GENDER DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGERIA: ADMINISTRATION IMPLICATIONS

Enamiroro Patrick Oghuvbu
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

Abstract
The study analysed the quantity and quality of female and male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was the information on Basic and Senior Secondary Education Key Indicators for Nigeria 2005/2006 Academic Session. Two research questions were raised and answered using percentages; two hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that, there is a difference between the percentage quantity and quality of female and male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria. There are more female (51%) than male (49%) teacher in primary schools, more male (64.3%) than female (35.76%) teachers in secondary schools. The percentage of qualified female (55.4%) is greater than male (44.6%) teachers in schools in Nigeria.

Keyword: Gender, Teachers, Private, Public and  Schools


Introduction

Education is life, life without basic education is incomplete. It is an essential human right, a force for social change and a single most vital element in combating poverty, empowering women, safeguarding children from exploration, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment and controlling population growth. (Anna, 1999).

From these roles of education in human development, it is not enough simply to ensure that children attend school, but the quality of education is also of paramount concern. How knowledge, skills and values are transmitted is as important as what is learned, hence teachers


quality and quantity is of vital importance in a country‘s educational system. Quality is about getting it right first time and eliminating variation in terms of substandard performance. It is managed through prevention not deception. This is achieved by empowering the work force to responsibility for the quality and not relying on checking up on them. This is a very important concept in education where traditionally the culture has been concerned with professional autonomy (Edobor, 2005) and (Osama, 2003).

Quality in education means continuous improvement i.e. the commitment to the enhancement of services. Measuring quality in schools, parent perceived quality education when their children achieve academically. School prestige in parents eyes is determined by its academic achievement and clients satisfaction. Students attached more importance to the teaching skills than their academic achievement as determinants for quality academic performance. (Edobor, 2005:67), (Arikewuyo, 1997), Kremer-Hayonna and Maskit, 1990) and (Gaziel, 1996).

On effect of gender on quality, studies revealed male students’ superiority to their female counterparts in science and mathematics achievement in secondary schools. (Okeke, 1986), (Yoloye, 1994), (Alamina, 2001). In a similar study, Onunkwo (2000:75) concluded that female nursery school pupils achieved significantly higher than their male counterparts in both science and mathematics.

Quality could be enhanced by effectiveness, which encompasses not only the quantity and quality of the output, but also its correspondence to expected and desired outcomes. Where teachers do not achieve the desired behavioural objectives of their lesson, then such was not effectively taught. Also if a

school head fails to judiciously use the scarce resources (human and material) available in school to achieve desired school goals, such is an ineffective school head. These could contribute significantly to the overall ineffectiveness of the entire school system. Effectiveness and efficiency could be achieved in a school through the procurement of quality and adequate manpower, technology for the teaching and learning, training of school administrators, staff motivation and conducive working environment  (Umoren, 1998:10), (Okoro, 2002).

Culture, religious belief and tradition, influences the distribution and utilization of teachers in Nigeria. It is a common practice that married female teachers serve or teach in their husbands’ station. Hence most married women are not posted to rural schools. This affects manpower distribution in education. Also, increase in indiscipline among pupils and students, also influence female teachers administration especially pupils/students discipline in schools. These factors could affects instructional quality and student administration in primary and secondary schools.

Statement of the Problem

Gender inequality in all sectors of the economy is a common problem among developing countries. In Nigeria, a good percentage of the population are illiterate. In order to reduced the level of illiteracy, States and the Federal Government approved and provide fund for part-time programmes such as National Teachers Institute, Distance Learning, Sandwich, Weekend and the Open University Degree Programmes. Women from the experience of the researcher were more interested in these educational programmes. Women entering the teaching profession is above 70% of the total population of teachers, since the introduction of part-time programmes.

There is increase in insecurity and vandalisation in schools especially in the Niger Delta religion. School personal are regularly attacked by community youths. With a higher percentage of female teachers in primary and
secondary schools, what are the perceived  administrative implications? 

The Purpose  and Significance of the Study
This paper is an empirically gender analysis of the quality and quantity of teachers in private and public primary and secondary schools. The paper assessed the gender position in the teaching profession, and its implication in school administration. In Nigeria, there is significant dichotomy between female and male parent in the provision of education for the girl child based on religion, culture and tradition. Also school location influence the distribution of school personnel, coupled with the age long controversy in the discrepancy in sex differences in educational attachment and work attitude (Akpotu and Oghuvbu, 2004:48). The results of this study could be a solution to a perceived insecurity problem in the management of primary and secondary schools in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The study provided answers to the following questions.

  1. What is the percentage of female to male teachers in private and public primary and secondary schools in Nigeria?
  2. Is there any difference in the percentage of qualified female and male teachers in private and public schools?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study.

  1. Type of ownership does not significantly influence female and male teachers quantity in school;
  2. Type of ownership does not significantly influence the quality of female and male teachers in schools.

 

Method and Procedure

The population of the study consisted of the teachers in all the private and public primary and secondary schools in the 36 States that made up the Federal Republic of Nigeria i.e. 50,742 public and 9,019 private primary school = i.e. 59,761 primary schools, 13,846 public and 5,235 private secondary school i.e. 19,081 secondary schools. Population of study is all the teachers in 78,842 schools in 2005/2006 academic session. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select thirty states as sample used in this study.  Note: schools in this study referred to primary and secondary schools.
The instrument used for the study was the information on Basic and Senior Secondary Education Key Indicators for Nigeria. National

and by State from the Statistics Division Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja.

Data Analysis

In analysing the data collected, the researcher made use of simple percentage and chi-square statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The research questions were answered using percentage and the hypotheses were tested with chi-square at 0.05 level of significant.

Results

Results presented according to research questions and hypotheses.

Research Question One:          What is the percentage of female to male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria.


 

Table One:      Percentage of Female to Male Teachers in Private and

Public Schools


Ownership /
Sex

Private

Public

Grand Total

Primary
Score/%

Secondary Score/%

Total

Primary
Score/%

Secondary
Score/%

Total

Primary
Score/%

Secondary
Score/%

Total

Female

68,115
65

12076
33

80191
56.6

236,267
48

44,738
36.5

281005
45.6

304,382
51

56814
35.7

361196
47.6

Male

36,607
35

24,760
67

61,367
43.4

257,992
52

77,709
63.5

335701
54.4

294,599
49

102469
64.3

397068
52.4

Total

104,722

36836

141558

494,259

122447

616,706

598,981

159283

758,264

Source: Field Survey
           


In table one, the percentage of female to male teachers is (47.6%) to (52.4%) . There are more male teachers than female teachers in schools in Nigeria. In Primary Schools, 51% are female and 49% are male teachers. On school ownership and quantity of teachers, 65% are female while 35% are male teachers in private primary schools. The percentage of female teachers in private secondary schools is greater than male teachers, also greater than female in public primary schools (48%). Percentage of male teachers, (67%) in private secondary schools is greater than male (63.5%) in public secondary schools. The table revealed more male teachers in private and public secondary schools.
The table also showed a difference in the percentage of male and female teachers in private and public schools i.e. private female (56.6%) greater than male (43.4%) public,  female (45.6%) less than male (54.4%).

Research Question Two:          Is there any difference in the percentage of qualified

female and male teachers in private and public schools.

 

Table Two:            Percentage of Qualified Female and Male Teachers in Private and Public Schools

 

Ownership / Sex

Private

Public

Grand Total

Primary

Secondary

Total

Primary
Score/%

Secondary
Score/%

Total

Primary
Score/%

Secondary
Score/%

Total

Female

No./% of Qualified Teachers

28,199
68.3

7906
36.9

36105
57.5

155923
60.6

37998
40

193921
55

184,122
61.7

45904
39.4

230026
55.4

No. / % of Teachers

68,115
41.4

12076
65.5

80191
45

236,267
66

44,738
85

281005
69

304,382
51

56814
80.8

361196
63.7

Male

No./% of Qualified Teachers

13,112
31.7

13521
63

26633
42.5

101339
39.4

57184
60

158523
45

114,451
38.3

70705
60.6

185156
44.6

No. / % of Teachers

36,607
35

24,760
67

61,367
43.4

257,992
52

77,709
63.5

335701
54.4

294,599
49

102469
64.3

397068
52.4

Total

No. of Qualified Teachers

41,311

21427

62738

257262

95182

352,444

298573

116609

415182

No. / % of Teachers

104,722
39.4

36836
58.2

141558
43

494,259
52.1

122447
77.7

616,706
57

598,981
49.8

159283
73.2

758,264
54.8

Source: Field Survey

In table two, qualified female  teachers are greater than male teachers in Nigeria i.e. (63.7%) > (46.4%). In private schools, the percentage of qualified female teachers (57.5%) slightly exceeds those in public schools with (55%). But the percentage of qualified teachers in private schools (44.3%) is less than public schools (57%). Private schools have the highest percentage of qualified female teachers (68.3%) than male teachers with (31.7%) of the qualified teachers in private schools. The percentage of qualified teachers in public secondary

schools (77.7%) is greater than private schools (52.1%). However, (85%) of the female teachers in secondary schools are qualified while (73.6%) of male teachers in secondary are qualified. Only (44.3%) of private schools teachers are qualified while 957%) of teachers in public schools are qualified. That is, there are more qualified teachers in public schools in Nigeria.

Hypotheses One:  Type of school ownership does not significantly influence female and male teachers quality in schools.


Table Three:  Chi-square of Goodness of Fit on Gender Distribution of
    Teachers in Private and Public Schools


Ownership/Sex

Female

Males

Total

X2 Cal

X2Table Value

Decision

Private School

80191
(67430.6)

61367
(74127.4)

141,558

 

5669.85

 

3.84

Result is significant reject null hypothesis

Public School

281005
(293765.4)

33,5701
(322940.6)

616706

 

Total

 

361196

 

397068

 

758264

           


From table Three, ownership significantly influence the distribution of female and male teachers quantity in school. That is there is a difference in the percentage of female and male teachers between private and public schools.

Hypotheses Two:  Type of school ownership does not significantly influence the quality of female and male teachers in schools.


Table Four:  Chi-square of Goodness of Fit on the Distribution of
Qualified Female and Male Teachers in Private and Public Schools


Ownership/Sex

Female

Males

Total

X2 Cal

X2Table Value

Decision

Private School

36,105
(34,759)

193921
(195267)

230026

 

137.65

 

3.84

Result is significant reject null hypothesis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Public School

26633
(27978.9)

158523
(157,177.1)

185,156

 

Total

 

62,738

 

352,444

 

415,182

           


From table four, type of school ownership significantly influence the quality of male and female teachers in schools. That is, there is a difference in   between private and public schools in the percentage of qualified female and male teachers.

Discussion

The result of this study revealed that the percentage of male 52.4% is higher than female teachers in Nigeria. However, the difference is no high, an indication of increase number of educated female population in Nigeria. These could result in the reduction of illiteracy, prostitution, poverty, early marriage, unwanted pregnancy and babies and other forms of indiscipline among the female population in Nigeria.

There are more qualified female teachers in private schools, an indication that most qualified housewives preferred to remain in urban areas. Also percentage of qualified male teachers in public secondary schools is greater than male teachers, an indication which revealed that female enrolment in faculties of education is greater than female which is consistent with the view of the researcher, this has administrative implications. These could affect quality of instructions of academic performance of students, especially in rural schools. It also revealed that male do not perform on the average above female in education courses. These findings are consistent with (Umoren, 1998), (Edobor, 2005), (Gaziel, 1996) and (Onunkwo, 2005).

Conclusion and Recommendation

There is a difference between the quantity and quality of female and male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria. There are  more female (51%) than male 49% teachers in primary schools. In secondary schools than female 35.76% teachers in Nigeria. The percentage of qualified female 55.4% is greater than male 44.6% teachers in schools in Nigeria.

The percentage of qualified female (65.5%) is greater than male (54.6%) teachers in private schools. In public schools percentage of qualified female (60.5%) greater than male (47.2%). Quality instruction can only be provided by professionally qualified teachers. Economic, social, scientific and technological development can only be achieved through qualitative education. Government should provide opportunities for the training of unqualified teacher and the employment of more qualified teachers into the schools. Incentives should be provided to teachers to encourage more male into the teaching profession. Such incentives as increase in salaries, regular payment of salaries, payment of rural allowances, scholarship for serving teachers and education students.

Implication for School Administration

The study revealed a high percentage of qualified female teachers in private schools an indication of qualified male teachers unwillingness to teacher in such school due to low wages and irregular payment. Also most private schools are located in urban areas, where most qualified female teachers reside with their families. Also the percentage of qualified female teachers (69%) is greater than male teacher (47.2%) in public schools. The administrative implication after a period of time, good percentage of the school heads will be female. Since most female teachers/school 


Journal of Research in National Development 6(2) December, 2008


heads do not accept posting to rural schools, leadership in rural schools, will be of low quality compared to urban schools. Students and teachers discipline may decline and insecurity problem may also increase in schools, managed by weak female heads.

A high percentage of female teachers could also increase cost of education because of too many maternity leaves leading to employment of more teachers. These could also affect instructional quality and quantity, because absenteeism rate could be higher among female teachers as nursing mothers. These factors could affect negatively the administration of schools in Nigeria.

 

References

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Nigerian Secondary School Teachers: The Students Perspectives International Studies in Educational Administration Journal of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management. Britain 32 (2) (44 - 57).

Alamina, J. I. (2001) An Impediment to Women in Science; Cultural
Influence and the Way Forward. 42nd  Annual  conference Proceedings of the STAN Ibadan; Heinemann  Educational Books.

Annan, K. A. (1999): Education for All: Making the Right a Reality. The
State of the World’s Children in Education. UNICEF. (7 - 21).

Arikewuyo, P. (1997): The Perception of Parents, Teachers and Students on Effective Education. Journal of Research in Education, Lagos. Vol. 20. No. 5.

Edobor, R. I. O. (2005) : Quality Management in Nigerian University Education: The Views of Lecturers, Parents and Students. Journal of Research in Education,  Uyo. Vol. 2. No. 1. (61 - 69).

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2005): Information on Basic and Senior
Secondary Education. Key Indicators for Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education, Statistics Division.

Fremer-Hayoun, L. and Maskit, D. (1990): School Effectiveness in the Mirror of Pupils and Parents. Unpublished Dissertation; Hafia University of Education.

Gaziel, H. (1996) School Effectiveness and Effectiveness Indicators; Parents, Students, Teachers and Principals Perspectives. International Review of Education. 42 (5) 475 – 494.

Okeke, E. A. C. (1986): Attracting Women into Science Based Occupations: Problems and Prospects. Science Public Policy. Lagos. 13(3) 147 –149.

Okoro, M. O. (2002) Effectiveness  in Schools,  West Africa Journal of
Education, Uyo: TopHill Publishers. 22 (5) (40 - 48).

Osama, P. M. (2003) Qualitative Education,  Educational Administration Journal,  Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Vol. 200 No. 21 (170 - 178).

Umoren, D. N. (1998): Effectiveness and Efficiency in the School System: A Theoretical Review,  West African Journal of Research and Development in Education, Calabar. Vol. 5. No. 4 (10 - 15).

Ununkwo, G. I. N. (2005): Gender Inequality in Science and Mathematics Achievement: Does it Extend to Nursery School Pupils? The Nigerian Academic Forum, Awka. Volume 9. No. 5. (75 - 86).

Yoloye, A. (1994): Intervention Strategies in Promoting Women Participation in Science and Technology,  in Erinosh, S. Y. (Ed)
Perspectives on Women in Science and Technology in Nigeria, Lagos Estlink Nigeria Enterprises.