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GENDER DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGERIA: ADMINISTRATION IMPLICATIONS
Enamiroro Patrick Oghuvbu
Keyword: Gender, Teachers, Private, Public and Schools
Education is life, life without basic education is incomplete. It is an essential human right, a force for social change and a single most vital element in combating poverty, empowering women, safeguarding children from exploration, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment and controlling population growth. (Anna, 1999).
From these roles of education in human development, it is not enough simply to ensure that children attend school, but the quality of education is also of paramount concern. How knowledge, skills and values are transmitted is as important as what is learned, hence teachers
quality and quantity is of vital importance in a country‘s educational system. Quality is about getting it right first time and eliminating variation in terms of substandard performance. It is managed through prevention not deception. This is achieved by empowering the work force to responsibility for the quality and not relying on checking up on them. This is a very important concept in education where traditionally the culture has been concerned with professional autonomy (Edobor, 2005) and (Osama, 2003).
Quality in education means continuous improvement i.e. the commitment to the enhancement of services. Measuring quality in schools, parent perceived quality education when their children achieve academically. School prestige in parents eyes is determined by its academic achievement and clients satisfaction. Students attached more importance to the teaching skills than their academic achievement as determinants for quality academic performance. (Edobor, 2005:67), (Arikewuyo, 1997), Kremer-Hayonna and Maskit, 1990) and (Gaziel, 1996).
On effect of gender on quality, studies revealed male students’ superiority to their female counterparts in science and mathematics achievement in secondary schools. (Okeke, 1986), (Yoloye, 1994), (Alamina, 2001). In a similar study, Onunkwo (2000:75) concluded that female nursery school pupils achieved significantly higher than their male counterparts in both science and mathematics.
Quality could be enhanced by effectiveness, which encompasses not only the quantity and quality of the output, but also its correspondence to expected and desired outcomes. Where teachers do not achieve the desired behavioural objectives of their lesson, then such was not effectively taught. Also if a
school head fails to judiciously use the scarce resources (human and material) available in school to achieve desired school goals, such is an ineffective school head. These could contribute significantly to the overall ineffectiveness of the entire school system. Effectiveness and efficiency could be achieved in a school through the procurement of quality and adequate manpower, technology for the teaching and learning, training of school administrators, staff motivation and conducive working environment (Umoren, 1998:10), (Okoro, 2002).
Culture, religious belief and tradition, influences the distribution and utilization of teachers in Nigeria. It is a common practice that married female teachers serve or teach in their husbands’ station. Hence most married women are not posted to rural schools. This affects manpower distribution in education. Also, increase in indiscipline among pupils and students, also influence female teachers administration especially pupils/students discipline in schools. These factors could affects instructional quality and student administration in primary and secondary schools.
Statement of the Problem
Gender inequality in all sectors of the economy is a common problem among developing countries. In Nigeria, a good percentage of the population are illiterate. In order to reduced the level of illiteracy, States and the Federal Government approved and provide fund for part-time programmes such as National Teachers Institute, Distance Learning, Sandwich, Weekend and the Open University Degree Programmes. Women from the experience of the researcher were more interested in these educational programmes. Women entering the teaching profession is above 70% of the total population of teachers, since the introduction of part-time programmes.
There is increase in insecurity and vandalisation in schools especially in the Niger Delta religion. School personal are regularly attacked by community youths. With a higher percentage of female teachers in primary and
The Purpose and Significance of the Study
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study.
Method and Procedure
The population of the study consisted of the teachers in all the private and public primary and secondary schools in the 36 States that made up the Federal Republic of Nigeria i.e. 50,742 public and 9,019 private primary school = i.e. 59,761 primary schools, 13,846 public and 5,235 private secondary school i.e. 19,081 secondary schools. Population of study is all the teachers in 78,842 schools in 2005/2006 academic session. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select thirty states as sample used in this study. Note: schools in this study referred to primary and secondary schools.
and by State from the Statistics Division Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja.
In analysing the data collected, the researcher made use of simple percentage and chi-square statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The research questions were answered using percentage and the hypotheses were tested with chi-square at 0.05 level of significant.
Results presented according to research questions and hypotheses.
Research Question One: What is the percentage of female to male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria.
Table One: Percentage of Female to Male Teachers in Private and
Source: Field Survey
In table one, the percentage of female to male teachers is (47.6%) to (52.4%) . There are more male teachers than female teachers in schools in Nigeria. In Primary Schools, 51% are female and 49% are male teachers. On school ownership and quantity of teachers, 65% are female while 35% are male teachers in private primary schools. The percentage of female teachers in private secondary schools is greater than male teachers, also greater than female in public primary schools (48%). Percentage of male teachers, (67%) in private secondary schools is greater than male (63.5%) in public secondary schools. The table revealed more male teachers in private and public secondary schools.
Research Question Two: Is there any difference in the percentage of qualified
female and male teachers in private and public schools.
Table Two: Percentage of Qualified Female and Male Teachers in Private and Public Schools
Source: Field Survey
In table two, qualified female teachers are greater than male teachers in Nigeria i.e. (63.7%) > (46.4%). In private schools, the percentage of qualified female teachers (57.5%) slightly exceeds those in public schools with (55%). But the percentage of qualified teachers in private schools (44.3%) is less than public schools (57%). Private schools have the highest percentage of qualified female teachers (68.3%) than male teachers with (31.7%) of the qualified teachers in private schools. The percentage of qualified teachers in public secondary
schools (77.7%) is greater than private schools (52.1%). However, (85%) of the female teachers in secondary schools are qualified while (73.6%) of male teachers in secondary are qualified. Only (44.3%) of private schools teachers are qualified while 957%) of teachers in public schools are qualified. That is, there are more qualified teachers in public schools in Nigeria.
Hypotheses One: Type of school ownership does not significantly influence female and male teachers quality in schools.
Table Three: Chi-square of Goodness of Fit on Gender Distribution of
From table Three, ownership significantly influence the distribution of female and male teachers quantity in school. That is there is a difference in the percentage of female and male teachers between private and public schools.
Hypotheses Two: Type of school ownership does not significantly influence the quality of female and male teachers in schools.
Table Four: Chi-square of Goodness of Fit on the Distribution of
From table four, type of school ownership significantly influence the quality of male and female teachers in schools. That is, there is a difference in between private and public schools in the percentage of qualified female and male teachers.
The result of this study revealed that the percentage of male 52.4% is higher than female teachers in Nigeria. However, the difference is no high, an indication of increase number of educated female population in Nigeria. These could result in the reduction of illiteracy, prostitution, poverty, early marriage, unwanted pregnancy and babies and other forms of indiscipline among the female population in Nigeria.
There are more qualified female teachers in private schools, an indication that most qualified housewives preferred to remain in urban areas. Also percentage of qualified male teachers in public secondary schools is greater than male teachers, an indication which revealed that female enrolment in faculties of education is greater than female which is consistent with the view of the researcher, this has administrative implications. These could affect quality of instructions of academic performance of students, especially in rural schools. It also revealed that male do not perform on the average above female in education courses. These findings are consistent with (Umoren, 1998), (Edobor, 2005), (Gaziel, 1996) and (Onunkwo, 2005).
Conclusion and Recommendation
There is a difference between the quantity and quality of female and male teachers in private and public schools in Nigeria. There are more female (51%) than male 49% teachers in primary schools. In secondary schools than female 35.76% teachers in Nigeria. The percentage of qualified female 55.4% is greater than male 44.6% teachers in schools in Nigeria.
The percentage of qualified female (65.5%) is greater than male (54.6%) teachers in private schools. In public schools percentage of qualified female (60.5%) greater than male (47.2%). Quality instruction can only be provided by professionally qualified teachers. Economic, social, scientific and technological development can only be achieved through qualitative education. Government should provide opportunities for the training of unqualified teacher and the employment of more qualified teachers into the schools. Incentives should be provided to teachers to encourage more male into the teaching profession. Such incentives as increase in salaries, regular payment of salaries, payment of rural allowances, scholarship for serving teachers and education students.
Implication for School Administration
The study revealed a high percentage of qualified female teachers in private schools an indication of qualified male teachers unwillingness to teacher in such school due to low wages and irregular payment. Also most private schools are located in urban areas, where most qualified female teachers reside with their families. Also the percentage of qualified female teachers (69%) is greater than male teacher (47.2%) in public schools. The administrative implication after a period of time, good percentage of the school heads will be female. Since most female teachers/school
Journal of Research in National Development 6(2) December, 2008
heads do not accept posting to rural schools, leadership in rural schools, will be of low quality compared to urban schools. Students and teachers discipline may decline and insecurity problem may also increase in schools, managed by weak female heads.
A high percentage of female teachers could also increase cost of education because of too many maternity leaves leading to employment of more teachers. These could also affect instructional quality and quantity, because absenteeism rate could be higher among female teachers as nursing mothers. These factors could affect negatively the administration of schools in Nigeria.
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